Tuesday, 28 June 2016

HIV,AIDS,TEST,MYTHS, WINDOW PERIOD AND EVERYTHING ABOUT IT.

        *(photo taken from wikipedia )
I have worked as HIV specialist and district HIV nodal officer for 2 years in Government hospital. Today i will try to explain each and everything about Hiv, doubts related to it as per my experience, knowledge and academics . I hope this article would increase readers knowledge and awareness about aids

WHAT IS HIV?

Hiv or human immunodeficiency virus is the causative factor. This virus kills immunity cells of body. CD4 is one of the type immunity cells. So basically these virus decrease the immunity of the patient and eventually person starts getting multiple infection. There many types of virus means little change in structure or function produce different strains. Main strains are HIV-1  and HIV-2 . HIV-1 is world wide and more common. HIV-2 more common is Asia but still less than HIV-1. 

WHAT IS AIDS?

When Hiv enter body it remains silent for many years (5-7 years) and it keep on killing CD4 immunity cells. When immunity becomes very low and body start getting infections and other many virus related problem then all disease combined together called as AIDS. So patients do not get AIDS when HIV enter body but after many years when body start getting diseases and all. It full form is Acquired Immuno-deficiency Syndrome. Syndrome  means group of multiple diseases acquired due to low immunity. 

WHAT HAPPENS WHEN HIV ENTER BODY?

As i said Hiv remains silent in body and keep on multiply but when it enter body flue like symptoms which might go un noticed. Flu like symptoms are Mild fever, rashes, sore throat, body ache etc which remains for 4-6 weeks . This is the reaction of body against HIV. But after some times these symptoms go off. 


WHAT IS WINDOW PERIOD?

Window period is the time duration between Hiv enter to body and blood test start coming positive.  Blood test are negative at the time of entry of HIV and remains negative for 4-6 week. After certain period only it becomes positive so If somebody got exposed to HIV should repeat the blood test after 2-3 month. And if that comes negative that would be conclusive. Window period also depends of Test and person. Good test (4th generations test) has window period for 2 weeks only. 

TRANSMISSION and MYTHS 

There are only 3-4 ways of transmission of HIV. But i personally get so may queries regarding this . There so many myths regarding how HIV spreads.

1. Sexual intercourse
2. Mother to baby
3. Fluid to fluid touch ( semen, blood)
4. Infected blood transfusion
5. Drug abusers

MYTHS

Now there are so many misconception abut its transmission i every day gets questions about that i did this , I did that would i get hiv or not? here i tell where you wont get hiv

1. Oral sex is one most asked question. Answer is No. Until person has lesion , ulcer, cuts or fresh bleeding Other wise chance of transmission of HIV is zero .
2. Dry needle many people ask i got pricked a needle ( dry , not fresh blood contaminated) would i get HIV. Answer is no. HIV do not survive for long time out of body(few seconds only) So dry needle can not infect you.
3. Exposure to patients sweats, urine, saliva, food, sharing swimming pool, bathroom, touching do not cause hiv infection at all.
4. Same instrument used in patients if instrument do not have fresh blood of patient. HIV cant be transmitted.


I AM EXPOSED TO UNKNOWN STATUS PERSON WHAT SHOULD I DO?

1. Dont get panic just because you are in doubt that have you exposed to hiv or not?
2. If you are very much sure that you have exposed o hiv then start taking post exposure prophylaxis for that you need to go to government hospital and look for hiv clinic
3. Get the  test done 1st immediately and after 3 month. if both test are negative it means you are not positive.
4. Until everything clear use protection while sex

BLOOD TEST

I divide HIV test in to 4 part. People have so much confusion in quality , efficacy of test. So i have tried to simplify every thing


Rapid test - When you go to pathology and say that i want to get hiv test done. In this case lab does rapid test and give the result with in 20-30 minute. So rapid test are easy and result comes with 20-30 minute. In emergency when doctor need to go to surgery in that also we do rapid test.
Now rapid test are two type
1. 3rd generation ELISA - It is less specific and window period is longer. (about 4-6 week) It detects only body immunity which produce after 2-3 month of entry of HIV.
2. 4th generation ELISA - It window period is very less and it detects both Immunity and Hiv particle

TRIDOT test, and TRIDOT AB/AG (4th generation rapid test) are available in INDIA and other countries too.

ELISA, CLIA ,CMIA - 
Again these are screening test but takes time to get results. and yes same as rapid these also have 3rd generation and 4th generation types. Of course 4th generation is better and has low window period.
MICROLIS test (company name) is available in INDIA.

CONFIRMATORY TEST

Western blot, PCR are avilable . we should go for these if rapid or screening test comes positive. Other we should not do it.


HOW MANY TIMES WE SHOULD GET THE TEST

Well when you go for test window period should be consider. so I suggest to get test two times 1st when you feel that you have exposed to HIV. Although it is not much useful but it gives you  moral strength and clear your status regarding HIV at present. It would come negative then Get the test done after 3 month to clear everything.

WHAT IF TESTS COME POSITIVE. -(consider falls positive ) 

If tests come positive do not get panic. Some time falls positive result comes. So has to get confirmatory test done. (western blot, PCR) if these results come positive it means you are hiv positive if not then not.

HIV POSITIVE WHAT NEXT- (dont hide your status to doctors)

1st go to the Government hospital and medical college and get all medicine, precautions everything there. Indian government has highly strengthen system to handle HIV patients and treatment. This I can say with my personal experience as i have worked as HIV Specialist and officer in government hospital for 2 years.
Life is does not end here. You have more than 20 years if you take care of yourself and take medicine and all. Never loose hope. Help others , educate others, enjoy life as you were enjoying previously.

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ANY QUESTION RELATED TO HIV, AIDS 

6 comments:

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